Specific Gravity and Viscosity of Liquids

Specific gravity is the heaviness of a substance compared to that of water, and it is expressed without units. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the English system. If something is 7.85 times as heavy as an equal volume of water (such as iron is) its specific gravity is 7.85. Its density is 7.85 grams per cubic centimeter, or 7.85 kilograms per liter, or 7.85 metric tons per cubic meter. In relationship to liquids, the term specific gravity is used to describe the weight or density of a liquid compared to an equal volume of fresh water at 4C (39 F). If the liquid you are comparing will float on this water it has a specific gravity of less than one (1). If it sinks into the fresh water the specific gravity is more than one. As you have already guessed fresh water at 4C (39 F) has been assigned a value of one (1).

It is important that you do not confuse specific gravity with viscosity which is a measurement of a fluids resistance to pouring, though there is often what is perceived to be an obvious relationship. Thick liquids are said to have a high viscosity and thin liquids a low viscosity. Like specific gravity, viscosity can be altered by a change in temperature, but unlike specific gravity it can also be altered by agitation. The really important thing to keep in mind is that there is no correlation between viscosity and specific gravity. We measure specific gravity with a hydrometer. It consist of a glass cylinder with a rubber bulb on top, and a float positioned inside the glass tube. The float is calibrated to float on fresh water so if the fluid you are testing has a higher specific gravity, the float will raise in the liquid and at a lower specific gravity it will sink lower in the liquid. This is the same instrument that we use to tell if your automobile battery is fully charged. Another version will determine the concentration of anti-freeze in an automobile radiator. You can observe the little balls floating in the tube.

In our table below, we have given various liquids’ characteristics with the temperature modified to one of more of a real world value. As a rule of thumb, multiply the specific gravity of a liquid by 8.34 to find the weight of a gallon of that liquid.

 

 

Specific Gravity and Viscosity of Liquids

Liquid

Boiling
point
at
atm
press

Specific gravity

Viscosity

Temp

Based
on water
= 1 at 60F

Temp

centistokes

SSU

F

C

F

C

Automatic
crankcase oils SAE 10WSAE 10WSAE 20WSAE 20

SAE 30

SAE 40

SAE 50

60

15.6

.88-.94

0

-17.8

1295-max

6M-max

60

15.6

.88-.94

0

-17.8

1295-2590

6M-12M

60

15.6

.88-.94

0

-17.8

2590-10350

12M-48M

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

5.7-9.6

45-58

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

9.6-12.9

58-70

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

12.9-16.8

70-85

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

16.8-22.7

85-110

Automotive
gear oils SAE 75WSAE 80WSAE 85WSAE 90W

SAE 140

SAE150

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

4.2 min

40 min

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

7.0 min

49 min

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

11.0 min

63 min

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

14-25

74-120

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

25-43

120-200

60

15.6

.88-.94

210

98.9

43 min

200 min

Beer

60

15.6

1.01

68

20

1.8

32(est)

Benzene (Benzol) C6H6

60

0
15.6

0.899
0.885

32
66

0
20

1.00
0.744

31

Bone oil

60

15.6

0.918

130
212

54.4
100

47.5
11.6

220
65

Boric acid, sat. H3BO3

46.4
59

8
15

1.014
1.025

Brine see sodium choride and clacium chloride
Bromine

68
32

20
0

2.9

68

20.

0.34

Butane-n

60

15.6

0.584

-50
30

-1.1

0.52
0.35

Butyric acid n

60

20

0.959

68
32

20
0

1.61
2.3cp

31.6

Calcium chloride 5%25%

60

18.3

1.040

65

18.3

1.156

60

15.6

1.23

60

15.6

4.0

39

Carbolic acid (phenol)

60

18.3

1.08

65
194

18.3
90

11.83
1.26cp

65

Carbon tetrachoride CCl4

170F
76.7C

68

20

1.594

68
100

20
37.8

0.612
0.53

Carbon disulphide CS2

115F
46.2C

32
68

0
20

1.293
1.263

32
68

0
20

0.33
0.298

Castor oil

68
104

20
40

0.96
0.95

100
130

37.8
54.4

259-325
98-130

1200-1500
450-600

China wood oil

60

15.6

0.943

69
100

20.6
37.8

308.5
125.5

1425
580

Chloroform

142F
61.2C

68
140

20
60

1.489
1.413

68
140

20
60

0.38
0.35

Cocoanut oil

60

15.6

0.925

100
130

37.8
54.4

29.8-31.6
14.7-15.7

140-148
76-80

Cod oil

60

15.6

0.928

100
130

37.8
54.4

32.1
19.4

150
95

Corn oil

60

15.6

0.924

130
212

54.4
100

28.7
8.6

135
54

Corn starch solutions 22 Baume24 Baume25 Baume

60

15.6

1.18

70
100

21.1
37.8

32.1
27.5

150
130

60

15.6

1.20

70
100

21.1
37.8

129.8
95.2

600
440

60

15.6

1.21

70
100

21.1
37.8

303
173.2

1400
800

Cotton seed oil

60

15.6

.88-.93

100
130

37.8
54.4

37.9
20.6

176
100

Creosote

60

15.6

1.04-1.10

60
130

15.6
54.4

Crude oil 48. API40 API35.6 API32.6 API

Salt Creek

60
130

15.6
54.4

0.79
0.76

60
130

15.6
54.4

3.8
1.6

39
31.8

60
130

15.6
54.4

0.825
0.805

60
130

15.6
54.4

9.7
3.5

55.7
38

60
130

15.6
154

0.847
0.824

60
130

15.6
54.4

17.8
4.9

88.4
42.3

60
130

15.6
154

0.862
0.84

60
130

15.6
54.4

23.2
7.1

110
46.8

60
130

15.6
54.4

0.843
0.82

60
130

15.6
54.4

77
6.1

45.6

Decane-n

343F
173C

60

20

0.73

0
100

17.8
37.8

2.36
1.001

34
31

Diethylene glycol

60

15.6

1.12

70

21.1

32

149.7

Diethyl ether

94.4F

68

20

0.714

68

20

0.32

Diesel fuel oils 20304060

60

15.6

.82-1.08

100
130

37.8
54.4

2-6
1.-3.97

32.6-45.5
-39

60

15.6

.82-1.08

100
130

37.8
54.4

6-11.75
3.97-6.78

45.5-65
39-48

60

15.6

.82-1.08

100
130

37.8
54.4

29.8 max
13.1 max

140 max
70 max

60

15.6

.82-1.08

122
160

50
71.1

86.6 max
35.2 max

400 max
165 max

theocetate
COOC 2H3Dowtherm

171F
77.2C
494.3

15
20
25C

15
20
25C

0.907
0.90
1.056

59
68
77

15
20
25

0.4
0.49

Ethyl bromide
C 2H5Br

101F
77.2C

59

15

1.45

68

20

0.27

Ethylene bromide

269F
131.7C

68

20

2.18

68

20

0.787

Ethylene choride

183F
837C

68

20

1.246

68

20

0.668

Ethylene glycol

60

15.6

1.125

70

21.1

17.8

88.4

Formic acid
10%50%80%Conc.

68

20

1.025

68

20

1.04

31

68

20

1.121

68

20

1.2

31.5

68

20

1.186

68

20

1.4

31.7

60

15.6

1.221

68
77

20
25

1.48
1.57cp

31.7

Freon
-11-12-21

70

21.1

1.49

70

21.1

0.21

70

21.1

1.33

70

21.1

0.27

70

21.1

1.37

70

21.1

1.45

31.7

Furfurol

161.7C

68

20

1.159

68
77

20
25

1.45
1.49cp

31.7

Fuel oils
1235A

5B

6

60

15.6

.82-1.08

70
100

21.1
37.8

2.39-4.28
-2.69

34-40
32-35

60

15.6

.82-1.08

70
100

21.1
37.8

3.0-7.4
2.11-4.28

36-50
33-40

60

15.6

.82-1.08

70
100

21.1
37.8

2.69-5.84
2.06-3.97

35-45
32.8-39

60

15.6

.82-1.08

70
100

21.1
37.8

7.4-26.4
4.91-13.7

50-125
42-72

60

15.6

.82-1.08

70
100

21.1
37.8

26.4-
13.6-67.1

125-
72-310

60

15.6

.82-1.08

122
160

50
71.1

97.4-660
37.5-172

450-3M
175-780

Gas oils

60

15.6

0.89

70
100

21.1
37.8

13.9
7.4

73
50

Gasolines
abc

60

15.6

0.74

60
100

15.6
37.8

0.88
0.71

60

15.6

0.72

60
100

15.6
37.8

0.64

60

15.6

0.68

60
100

15.6
37.8

0.46
0.40

Glycerine
100%

554F

68

20

1.260

68.6
100

20.3
37.8

648
176

2950
813

50% water

68

20

1.13

68
140

20
60

5.29
1.85cp

43

Glucose

60

15.6

1.35-1.44

100
150

37.8
65.6

7.7M-22M
880-2420

35M-100M
4M-11M

Heptane-n

209.2F
98.4C

60

15.6

0.688

0
100

-17.8
37.8

0.928
0.511

Hexane-n

155.7F
68.7C

60

15.6

0.664

0
100

-17.8
37.8

0.683
0.401

Honey

100

37.8

73.6

349

Industrial lubricants Turbine oils
685 SSU at 100F420 SSU315 SSU215 SSU

150 SSU

60
200

15.6
93.3

647
14.5

3000
77

60
200

15.6
93.3

367
11

1700
63

60
200

15.6
93.3

259
8

1200
52

60
200

15.6
93.3

151
7.3

700
48

60
200

15.6
93.3

99
6

460
45.5

Machine lubricants
#8#10#20#30

.88-.94

100
130

37.8
54.4

23-34
13-18

112-160
70-90

.88-.94

100
130

37.8
54.4

34-72
18-25

160-235
90-120

.88-.94

100
130

37.8
54.4

72-83
25-39

235-385
120-185

.88-.94

100
130

37.8
54.4

75-119
39-55

350-550
185-255

Cutting oils
#1#2

100
130

37.8
54.4

30-40
17-23

140-190
86-110

100
130

37.8
54.4

40-46
23-26

190-220
110-125

Ink, printers

60

15.6

1.0-1.4

100
130

37.8
54.4

550-2200
238-660

2500-10M
1100-3M

Insulating oil

70
100

21.1
37.8

24.1 max
11.75 max

115 max
65 max

Kerosene

60

15.6

.78-.82

68

20

2.71

35

Jet Fuel (av)

325F

60

15.6

.62-.88

-30.

-34.4

7.9

52

Lard

60

15.6

0.96

100
130

37.8
54.4

62.1
34.3

287
160

Lard oil

60

15.6

.91-.93

100
130

37.8
54.4

41-47.5
23.4-27.1

190-220
112-128

Linseed oil

60

15.6

.92-.94

100
130

37.8
54.4

30.5
18.94

143
93

Mercury

675.1F
356.9C

60

15.6

13.57

70
100

21.1
37.8

0.118
0.11

Methyl acetate

135F
57.2C

68

20

0.93

68
104

20
40

0.44
0.32cp

Methyl iodide

108F
42.6C

68

20

2.28

68
104

20
40

0.213
0.42cp

Menhadden oil

60

15.6

0.93

100
130

37.8
54.4

29.8
18.2

140
90

Milk

60

15.6

1.02-1.05

68

20

1.13

31.5

Molasses
A, firstB, secondC, blackstrap

60

15.6

1.40-1.46

100
130

37.8
54.4

281-5070
151-1760

1300-23500
700-8160

60

15.6

1.43-1.48

100
130

37.8
54.4

1410-13.2M
660-3.3M

6535-61180
3058-15294

60

15.6

1.46-1.49

100
130

37.8
54.4

2630-55M
1320-16.5M

12190-255M
6120-76.5M

Naphthalene

424F
218C

68

20

1.145

176
212

80
100

0.9
0.78cp

Neatstool oil

60

15.6

0.917

100
130

37.8
54.4

49.7
27.5

230
130

Nitrobenzene

412F
210.9C

68
59

20
15

1.203
1.205

68

20

1.67

31.8

Nonane-n

302F
150.7C

60
68

15.6
20

0.7218
0.718

0
100

-17.8
37.8

1.728
0.807

32

Octane-n

258F
125.6C

60

15.6

0.7069

0
100

-17.8
37.8

1.266
0.645

31.7

Olive oil

570F
300C

60

15.6

.91-.92

100
130

37.8
54.4

43.2
24.1

200

Palms oil

60

15.6

0.924

100
130

37.8
54.4

47.8
26.4

Peanut oil

60

15.6

0.92

100
130

37.8
54.4

42
23.4

200

Pentane-n

60

0
15.6

0.650
0.631

0
80

17.8
26.7

0.508
0.342

Petrolatum

60

15.6

0.83

130
160

54.4
71.1

20.5
15

100
77

Petroleum ether

60

15.6

0.64

60

15.6

31(est)

1.1

Propionic acid

68

20

0.99

32
68

0
20

1.52cp
1.13

31.5

Propylene glycol

68

20

1.038

70

21.1

52

241

Quenching oil
(typical)

60

15.6

.86-.89

100-120

20.5-25

Rapeseed oil

68

20

0.92

100
130

37.8
54.4

54.1
31

250
145

Rosin oil

60

15.6

0.98

100
130

37.8
54.4

324.7
129.9

1500
600

Rosin (wood)

60

15.6

1.09 avg

100
200

37.8
93.3

216-11M
108-4400

1M-50M
500-20M

Sesame seed oil

60

15.6

0.923

100
130

37.8
54.4

39.6
23

184
110

Sodium chloride
5%25%

39

3.9

1.037

68

20

1.097

31.1

39
60

3.9
15.6

1.196
1.19

60

15.6

2.4

34

Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
20%30%40%

60

15.6

1.22

65

18.3

4.0

39.4

60

15.6

1.33

65

18.3

10.0

58.1

60

15.6

1.43

65

18.3

110.1

Soya bean oil

60

15.6

.924-.928

100
130

37.8
5.4

35.4
19.64

165
96

Sperm oil

60

15.6

1.35-1.44

100
130

37.5
54.4

21-23
15.2

110
78

Sugar solutions
Corn syrup
86.4 Brix84.4 Brix82.3 Brix80.3 Brix

78.4 Brix

60

15.6

1.459

100
180

37.8
82.2

180Mcp
1750cp

60

15.6

1.445

100
180

37.8
82.2

48Mcp
800cp

60

15.6

1.431

100
180

37.8
82.2

17Mcp
380cp

60

15.6

1.418

100
180

37.8
82.2

6900cp
230cp

60

15.6

1.405

100
180

37.8
82.2

3200cp
160cp

Sugar solutions
Sucrose 60 Brix64 Brix68 Brix72 Brix

74 Brix

76 Brix

60

15.6

1.29

70
100

37.8
82.2

49.7
18.7

230
92

60

15.6

1.31

70
100

21.1
37.8

95.2
31.6

440
148

60

15.6

1.338

70
100

21.1
37.8

216.4
59.5

1000
275

60

15.6

1.36

70
100

21.1
37.8

595
138.6

2700
640

60

15.6

1.376

70
100

21.1
37.8

1210
238

5500
1100

60

15.6

1.39

70
100

21.1
37.8

2200
440

10000
2000

Sulphuric acid
100%

444.6C

68

20

1.839

68
140

20
60

14.56
7.2cp

76

95%

68

20

1.839

68

20

14.5

75

60%

68

20

1.50

68

20

4.4

41

20%

68

20

1.14

3M-8M
650-1400

Tar, coke oven

60

15.6

1.12+

70
100

21.1
37.8

600-1760
141-308

15M-300M
2M-20M

Tar, gas house

60

15.6

1.16-1.30

70
100

21.1
37.8

3300-66M
440-4400

2500
500

Tar, pine

60

15.6

1.06+

100
132

37.8
55.6

559
108.2

200-300
55-60

Tar, road-RT-2RT-4RT-6RT-8

RT-10

RT-12

60

15.6

1.07+

122
212

50
100

43.2-64.9
8.8-10.2

400-700
65-70

60

15.6

1.08+

122
212

50
100

86.6-154
11.6-14.3

1M-2M
85-125

60

15.6

1.09+

122
212

50
100

216-440
16.8-26.2

3M-8M
150-225

60

15.6

1.13+

122
212

50
100

660-1760
31.8-48.3

20M-60M
250-400

60

156

1.14+

122
212

50
100

4.4M-13.2M
53.7-86.6

114M-458M
500-800

60

15.6

1.15+

122
212

50
100

25M-75M
108-173

Toluene

231F
110.6C

68

20

0.866

68
140

20
60

0.68
0.38cp

185.7

Triethylene glycol

68

20

1.125

70

21.1

40

400-440
185-205

Turpentine

320F

60

15.6

.86-.87

100
130

37.8
54.4

86.5-95.2
39.9-44.3

1425
650

Varnish, spar

60

15.6

0.9

68
100

20
37.8

313
143

Water, distilled

60

15.6

1.00

68

20

1.0038

31

Water, fresh

60

15.6

1.0

60
130

15.6
54.4

1.13
0.55

31.5

Water, sea

60

15.6

1.03

1.15

31.5

Whale oil

60

15.6

0.925

100
130

37.8
54.4

35-39.6
19.9-23.4

163-184
97-112

Xylene-o

287F
142.7C

68

20

0.87

68
104

20
40

0.93
0.623cp

Version 1.0.1